Development of Modern Architecture in Hong Kong.

香港現代建築的發展

Author: Edward Leung. 作者:梁以華

Date: June 2013. 日期:2013年6月

Case Study 4: Footbridge Systems in Central

案例4:中環行人天橋系統

 

Building / Site: Central

建築 /地點:中環

Theme: Mobility and Efficiency

主題:流動感及效率性

 

Location: Central.

位置:中環。

Ownership: Hongkong Land.

業權:置地公司。

Architect (original building): P&T Architects.

建築師 (原建築):畢馬丹拿建築師。

Architect (recent years alterations): Aedas Ltd.

建築師 (近年改造):凱達國際。

 

Year of Construction: Varies, since1964; recent re-configuration: 1998.

建造年期:多次自1964;近年改裝:1998。

 

Modernist Architectural Dream of City of Footbridges:

現代建築夢想中的行人天橋城市:

 

The scene of pedestrian footbridges in Central District of Hong Kong today may seem ordinary to contemporary residents of Hong Kong, but on closer examination, expresses an urban fabric rarely seen in other cities. Such unique urban planning indeed arose from a history of innovative collaboration between developers and government, inspired by a rich international heritage of architectural and city planning ideas.

 

今天香港中環行人天橋的景象可能在當今香港市民眼中看似平凡,但細看之下就發現其中在其地城市罕見的都市肌理。這種獨特的城市設計,其實沿自發展商與政府之間,因著豐富的國際遺產建築與城規靈感引發的創意式合作。

 

The architectural image of transparent footbridges crisscrossing in mid-air between mega-buildings presented by Fritz Lang in his movie, Metropolis, in 1927, was one of the most vivid inspirations of urban architecture of the 20th Century. This idea appears to have promoted by two main factors of the beginning of the century. On the social front, urban communities were confident that modern urban life is about proficient transportation of people across city, free and democratic movement across all spaces for all, and integration of work and leisure at all physical and social dimensions. On the technical front, long-span footbridges, large air-conditioned indoor spaces, moldable glass enclosures to roofs and walls, and mega-buildings hollowed in the middle to house circulation spaces, gave birth to footbridges and large atrium. However the image of Manhattan with flying bridges never materialized as the US economy was soon to be shadowed by the subsequent recession.

 

在1927年Fritz Lang的電影《大都會》中,通透的行人天橋在巨型建築之間交义著的建築影象,是二十世紀城市建築的最強烈的靈感泉源之一。這個意念似乎是由20世紀初的兩個主要因素推動。社會方面,當時都市社羣深信能將市民有效地在城市中運輸就是現代生活的要素。技術方面,大跨道的術人天橋、大型空調室內空間、可供塑造次玻璃屋頂及牆身,以及中空而可包容流通空間的巨型建築,孕育出行人天橋和大型室內中庭。可惜曼克頓市滿佈空中天橋的景象却因接著而來的大蕭條而未能實現。

 

Such set back by New York designers was nevertheless re-ignited by young British architects in 1960s, known as Archigram, determined to fully exploit the social agenda and engineering will of Modernism, to create mega-structures of multi-level spaces where people can meander across mid-air, seamlessly from outdoors to indoors. As depicted by US Architecture Critic Michael Sorkin, this vision “was clearly democratic, … (the architects) argued that an architecture based on Mobility and Malleability could set people free”. However, as demonstrated in their very few built examples, as in apart from footbridge system of the South Bank ensemble built in Festival Britain in 1951 and University of East Anglia in 1960s (both by Sir Denys Lasdun), the idea was only feasible if the connected buildings and roads in between are of same ownership, thus severely limiting its viability in modern urban context as it was originally intended. But this limitation was exactly the reason why it succeeded in Hong Kong where few other cities could.

 

紐約設計師的挫折却被1960年代一羣稱為Archigram的英國建築師重燃。他們决意盡量利用現代主義的社會及工程課題,創造出多層空間的巨型建築,讓人們可以在半空中自由地遊走、從室外室內無縫地穿插。

美國建築評論員Michael Sorkin指出,這個理念「無疑是民主的,…(建築師)辯稱以流動性和可塑性發展出來的建築能夠將人民釋放」。然而,從他們極少建成的例子可見,如1951年大英博覽會時所建的倫敦南岸和1960年代東雅格利郡大學的行人天橋系統 (兩者之建築師均為拉斯頓所爵士),這個意念衹有當要連接的建築及橋樑均屬同一業權才可行,因而嚴重限制了它原意在現代城市環境中的實施。但是這個限制正正就是香港能夠成為少數可以使這意念成功的城市之一的原因。

 

In 2008, the Skyscraper Museum of New York held an exhibition called “Multi-level City”, depicting the case study of Hong Kong as a city connected by pedestrian walkways at various levels, praising the achievements of both developers and designers of the footbridge systems of Hong Kong, which “realized the prophecies of New York architects” as visioned in 1920s.

 

在2008年紐約的摩天大廈博物館舉行了一個「多層都市」的展覽,指出香港作為一個以多層行人通道連接的城市的案例,讚揚香港行人天橋的發展商及設計師的成就,使在1920年代「紐約建築師的預言實現」。

 

Heritage of Footbridge Designs in Hong Kong:

香港行人天橋的傳統:

 

The first air-conditioned footbridge in Hong Kong appeared in 1963 across Chater Road in Central, spanning between Princes Building and Mandarin Hotel. Its span of 22m across a street at that time was already an achievement, and the air-conditioned linkage between two luxurious premises offered comfort in the hot climate.

 

香港第一條空調的行人天橋在1963年橫跨中環遮打道出現,將太子大廈與文華酒店連接。其22米之跨道在當時已經是創舉,它那在兩座高檔的物業之間的空調的通道,為炎熱的氣候中提供舒適。

 

In 1974 then tallest building in Hong Kong, Connaught Building (now renamed Jardine House), was built. The associated footbridge, connects the core of Central with this new reclamation district. The purity of the rectangular tower form of Connaught Building could not be compromised by a bridge interfering its façade. Thus the footbridge was designed to float and penetrate just through the giant columns transparent double-storey foyer.

 

在1974年當時最高的建築物康樂大廈 (現為怡和大廈) 落成。其相應的行人天橋將這新填海區與中環核心聯系。康樂大廈的純正方型塔樓,不能讓天橋干擾其主建築形態,因此行人天橋就被設計為浮在空中,在大廈巨柱之間插進通透的雙層大堂的結構。

 

The construction of the underground railway system in Hong Kong, known as MTR, since 1975, decisively drove the urban scene from then on. The redevelopment of Alexandra House in 1974 incorporated the Central Station directly beneath. Its podium arcade effectively acted as a node, linking the underground public spaces of the station courses, with the footbridges high above the streets of Central, with effective arrangement of escalators, into a system of pedestrian system, to reach other blocks and buildings in Central. Escalator, as first introduced to Hong Kong in 1957 in Man Yee Building in Central, designed by First Generation Modernist Master of China, Chu Bin, proved to be popular as Modern symbol of efficient Mobility in this highly commercial city.

 

自1975年香港地下鐵路的建造决定性地從此主導都市境貌。1975年歷山大廈的再發展將中環站直接包括在下,而其裙樓則成為一個核心,將地底的車站公共空間,與中環街道上空的行人天橋,以扶手電梯排列,聯成一個行人系統。自中國第一代建築大師朱彬設計之中環萬宜大厦引進香港首條自動扶手電梯後,扶手電梯即在這個高度商業化的城市中成為受歡迎的、代表高效率流動性的現代象徵物。

 

The Alexandra House redevelopment, together with the subsequent Landmark Development in 1979-82, paved the way to make Hong Kong the real first multi-strata metropolis in the world where pedestrians can meander along bridges and tunnels through buildings and streets. The only other city with such sophisticated integration is probably Tokyo, where the multi-level Shinjuku Station Complex is made up of a network of footbridges and underground arcades.

 

歷山大廈重建,與其後1979-82年置地廣場發展,為香港成為世界上第一個讓行人在建築及街道之間的天橋與隧道之中自由穿插的多層大都會。東京可能是另一個擁有如此複雜的整體系統的城市,其新宿車站是由一個以行人天橋及地底商場組合的建築羣。

 

Various owners of commercial premises in Central followed suit in 1980s-90s, and negotiated amongst each other, and facilitated by favorable government policies, constructed footbridges and linkages to expand the system to World Wide House, Standard Chartered Bank, Bank of East Asia, Central Building, and Entertainment Building. AIG Tower (now AIA Center) built in 2005 provided a new footbridge from Chater Garden, bringing public from the business core of Central to the future regeneration of the City Hall ensemble across Connaught Road.

 

許多中環商業地點的業主在1980-90年代跟隨,互相協商,及得到有利的政府政策相助,建造了將系統伸延至環球大廈、渣打銀行、東亞銀行、中建大廈及娛樂行的天橋及通道。建於2005年之AIG 大廈(現為AIA中心) 提供了與遮打花園的連接,為將中環商業中心之公眾帶到干諾道中對面未來再生的大會堂建築羣去。

 

On the other hand, the government further connects the footbridge system to public parks and pedestrianized zones, allowing no-car pedestrian movement from Admiralty to Sheung Wan, and also to the Central-mid-level Escalator System. On reflection, footbridges are meant to serve pedestrians and users of the buildings in the city, thus could never have worked if footbridges were solely built on government owned pavements and if not connected through to the public areas within adjoining private buildings. The success of the system in Hong Kong demonstrated the importance of cooperation between developers and the government.

 

另一方面政府更將行人天橋系統接駁至公園及行人專區,讓無車的行人運輸,由金鐘到上環,再連接到中半山扶手電梯。反思中,行人天橋是要服務行人及城市建築物的使用者,因此如果單純建在政府擁有之行人道,而不與周圍私人建築內的公用地方連接,是不會成功的。香港這系統之成功証實了發展商與政府的合作的重要性。

 

Innovative Renovation Enhancing Architectural Characters:

創意的裝修加了强了建築特徵:

 

Recent years renovations of these walkway systems offer an opportunity to re-assess its forgotten architectural and urban design values.

近年這些通道系統的翻新,提供了再評估其被忘遺的建築及城規價值的機會。

 

The apparent dullness of the Connaught Road footbridges belies its original innovative engineering design, which the architect re-presented this aspect in its renovation in 1999 by means of lighting and ceiling configurations. The bridge to Connaught Building, once the longest span footbridge in Hong Kong, was designed as an innovative series of concrete rings. The architect removed its mundane ceiling, and introduced recessed ceiling lights, to express the rhythm of the rings. The bridge in front of Exchange Square was designed as series of Y-shaped structures to minimize obstructions to pedestrians, but later badly obscured by the utilitarian rows of fluorescent tubes. The architect converted such to uplights to celebrate the highly sculptural fish-bone structures.

 

干諾道行人天橋表面沉悶的外貌掩飾了它原來創意的工程設計。1999年為它裝修的建築師以燈光及天花組合重新展示了它。接駁到康樂大廈的天橋曾經是香港最長跨道的行人天橋,以一排創新的混凝土結構圈組成。建築師拆去它無趣的天花,引入凹槽天花燈,以表達這些圈的韻律。交易廣場前的橋當年是以一排 Y 字形的結構造成,以減少對行人的阻礙,無奈後來被功能性的一排排光管阻擋住。建築師將它換為向上之燈光,以頌揚這些富雕塑性的魚骨狀結構。

 

Few designers realize that the most visible surface of a footbridge is actually the ceiling and not the floor or wall. Progressive renovations of the enclosed footbridges between Alexandra House, Landmark, Princes Building and Chater House in past decade continued to utilize the interesting interplay of lighting effects and ceiling surfaces, to offer innovative inverted pictures to passer-bys on the streets, and enrich the visual effect of the city.

 

很少設計師意識到行人天橋的最奪目的表面其實是天花而非地面或牆身。

在過法十年,將歷山大廈、置地廣場、太子大廈和遮打大廈之間的室內行人天橋裝修的工程中,不斷地利用燈光效果與天花平面的趣味性組合,為街上行人的提供創意的反轉圖案,而豐滿城市的視覺效果。

 

Innovative Renovation Enhancing Idea of Mobility in Indoor Public Space:

創意的裝修加了强了室內公共空間流動性的理念:

 

The major re-configuration of retail podium portions of both Alexandra House in 2003 and Landmark in 2005 enabled the re-examination of the potentials of these two premises, in terms of both development and architectural design. Most of the less successful indoor arcades suffer from obscure connectivity and loss of directional sense. In this case, architect and developer explored bold opportunities to re-configure the internal circulation patterns of several buildings, even to the extent of major structural alterations to create new voids, re-adjust floor levels, re-arrange escalators, and reshuffle tenant spaces.

 

在2003年將歷山大廈的商場及在2005年將置地廣場的商場的主要重構,容許重新審視這兩個場所的發展和建築設計。許多室內商場都因為不明朗的連接感和迷失了的方向感而不太成功。這案例中,建築師與發展商都在發掘大膽地重構幾座建築的室內交通模式的機遇,甚至進行主要結構改造,以製造新空挑、調節樓面高度、排列扶手電梯,和重排商户舖位。

 

One example is the re-alignment of escalators, arcades and entrances in Alexandra House, so that pedestrians, while strolling along footbridges, can get a glimpse of the daylight across the other side of the building, thus strengthening the sense of direction, and enhancing the attraction to walk across the space. Another example is the demolition of the old Landmark East Tower, to open up the Landmark Atrium onto Queens Road Central. Yet another is the re-configuration of horizontal routes and vertical circulation In Princes Building to achieve better visual connections between the three major footbridges to Alexandra House, Standard Chartered Bank and Mandarin Hotel. In all cases, such innovative re-planning achieved even more efficient retail areas despite the widening and easing of public passages.

 

其中一例是將歷山大廈的扶手電梯、商場通道及門户入口重新排列,好讓遊走於行人天橋上的人們可以窺視建築物另一邊的日光,加強了方向感,改進了走越空間的吸引力。另一例是把置地東翼拆卸,把置地廣場中庭往皇后大道中開放。再一就是把太子大廈的平面和垂直通道重構,以達致從歷山大廈、渣打銀行和文華酒店的三道主要行人天橋的更佳視線聯系。所有例子中,這些創意的再規劃,盡管把公眾通道都改造得更寬敞和更順,却達到比原來更高效的零售面積。

 

The footbridges and the connected retail areas in Central form an integrated architecture. “The assemblage of distinct commercial properties into a seamless retail atmosphere is achieved through aesthetic integration of all the bridges, as well as the creation of a constant and mechanically regulated micro-climate – a seamless air conditioned volume of air”. (Gutierrez, Laurent, and Portefax, Valerie “HK Lab 2”, Map Book Publishers, 2005, p245). Starting from 2013, the various outdoor and footbridge entries of various Hongkong Land buildings are further renovated to enhance the integrated branding image of the retail ensemble. Hongkong Land also progressed to renovate and open up toilets in the arcades of Landmark, Princes Building and other premises, to cater for the evolving demographics of community and visitors, making the premises an integral experience with adequate public facilities.

 

中環的行人天橋與相連的零售樓面形成一個整體的建築。「把分別的商業物業集結成一個無縫的零售大氣層,要通過所有天橋的美學組合,也依靠製造一個恆久而由機械控制的室內氣候 – 一鼓無縫的的空調容體」。(Gutierrez及Portefax, 《香港實驗室2》,2005, p245)。由2013年開始,置地公司的建築的各室外及橋上入口將再裝修以改進零售組羣的整體品牌形象。置地公司亦進而將置地廣場、太子大廈及其他大廈的商業場地的公共洗手間的翻新及開放予公眾,以照顧社會及賓客的人口蛻變,令這些場地成為擁有足夠公共設施的整體享受。

 

The continuous renovations of these buildings include adding of ramps, escalators and mechanical lifting platforms, to connect the existing floors of different levels for the benefits of disabled persons and parents with prams. The dedication of vehicle layby on Queens Road Central made the whole pedestrian system easily accessible by members of public. All these improvements were recognized by the Hong Kong Institute of Architects Annual Award of 2005 in the category of Accessibility. The integrated indoor public passage system of Central of Hong Kong, which connects the network of footbridges, commercial public spaces, and underground concourses, is a unique architectural and urban design masterpiece. When architect and developer acknowledge its historic inspiration, and proceed with continuous innovative upgrading and extension, it deserves attention and appreciation.

 

這些建築的不斷裝修,包括加添斜路、扶手電梯及電動升降台,以把不同高低之現有樓面連接,以便利殘障人仕和帶嬰兒車之父母。在皇后大道中撥出停車位使公眾人仕更加容易使用整個行人系統。這些一切的改善獲得2005年香港建築師學會可達性項目的年獎。香港中環的整體室內公共通道系統,將行人天橋、商業公共空間,和地底月台連接,成為獨特的建築及城市設計大作。當建築師與發展商承認它的歷史靈感而進行不斷改善和擴建,是值得注意和欣賞。

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